Global Journal of Virology and Immunology

Commentary - Global Journal of Virology and Immunology ( 2021) Volume 0, Issue 0

Ebola: symptoms, causes and diagnosis

Robert Brown*
Department of Microbiology, University of Florida, USA
*Corresponding Author:
Robert Brown, Department of Microbiology, University of Florida, USA, Email:

Published: 28-Dec-2021


Ebola, also known as Ebola virus disease and Ebola hemorrhagic fever, a viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and other monkeys, is caused by ebolaviruses. Symptoms usually begin anywhere between two and three weeks after infection. The first symptoms are usually fever, sore throat, muscle aches, and headaches. This is often followed by vomiting, diarrhea, rash and decreased liver and kidney function, at which point some people start bleeding internally and externally. The virus is spread through direct contact with body fluids, such as blood from infected people or other animals, or through contact with newly contaminated fluids. There have never been any reported cases, either naturally or under laboratory conditions, of a disease that spreads through the air between humans or other pets. After a person has recovered from Ebola, his sperm or breast milk may continue to carry the virus anywhere between a few weeks to a few months. Fruit bats are believed to carry the natural environment; they are able to spread the virus without being infected. The symptoms of Ebola may be similar to those of several other diseases, including malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis, and other infections caused by the virus. The diagnosis is confirmed by examining blood samples for the presence of RNA virus, antibodies, or the virus itself. Outbreak control requires integrated medical services and community outreach, which includes prompt detection, follow-up contact with identified, immediate access to laboratory services, care of those infected, and appropriate disposal of dead bodies by cremation or burial. Samples of body fluids and tissues from people with the disease should be treated with extreme caution. Preventive measures include wearing appropriate protective clothing and washing hands when in contact with an infected person, as well as reducing the spread of the disease from infected animals to humans by wearing protective clothing while handling contaminated forest meat, and cooking wild meat well before eating it. Often, bleeding usually indicates a serious outcome, and blood loss may result in death. It is believed that among humans, Ebola virus is spread only through direct contact with the blood or other body fluids of an infected person. The body fluids that may be infected with the Ebola virus include saliva, mucus, vomiting, feces, sweat, tears, breast milk, urine and semen. The WHO states that only the terminally ill people can transmit the Ebola virus to the saliva, and that the virus has not been reported to spread through sweat. Areas of infection include the nose, mouth, eyes, open wounds, cuts and bruises. Ebola may be spread by large droplets; however, this is believed to occur only when a person is seriously ill. Contact with contaminated surfaces or objects, especially needles and syringes, can also transmit the infection. The virus can survive in the body for a few hours in a dry place, and can live for a few days in a body fluid without a human being. Transmission between humans is possible visually due to the presence of Ebola virus particles in the saliva, which can be released into the air by coughing or sneezing, but pre-epidemic awareness data suggest that the actual risk of airborne transmission is low.. Quarantine means to distinguish those who may be infected until they show signs of disease or are no longer at risk. The quarantine, also known as forced separation, often works to reduce the spread.



Conflict of Interest