Received: 01-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. GJMPHE-23-84978; Editor assigned: 04-Nov-2022, Pre QC No. GJMPHE-23-84978(PQ); Reviewed: 18-Nov-2022, QC No. GJMPHE-23-84978; Revised: 25-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. GJMPHE-23-84978(R); Published: 02-Dec-2022, DOI: 10.15651/GJMPHE.22.3.051
Nutrition generally refers to the macro and micro nutrients which are essential for survival. We eat food normally originates from animal and plant based sources without us being aware of conscious of its nutritional values. Even more importantly various cultural factors influence our taste, preferences and practices towards preparing and consuming food as a meal. Geo political economic factors such as governmental policies oversee the production of genetically modified foods. Geological and climatic challenges of growing such crops in different countries and economic affordability of different populations for such type of foods also influence dietary habits and practices. On top of all this social evolutionary history of our species previously moving towards agriculture based societies from the hunter gatherer lifestyle and now this becoming the consumers of industrially processed food products that affect the general state of health. The aim of this article is to provide a perspective on nutrition and diet in the context of healthy ageing.
Large scientific evidence based information has been amassed with respect to the qualitative and quantitative nature of the optimal nutrition for human health. Lot more knowledge has been developed regarding different types of foods provide different kinds of nutrition to different extents and different dietary practices have either health beneficial or health harming effects.
The 3 essential macronutrients provides the basic materials for building biological structures for producing energy required for all physiological and biochemical processes are known as proteins, carbohydrates and also lipids. Apart from that, about 18 micronutrients comprised of minerals and vitamins which facilitate optimal utilization of the macronutrients by their role in the catalysis of various biochemical processes in the enhancement of their bioavailability, absorption and balancing of the microbiome.
Ageing, a major challenge to maintain health in old age is to imbalanced nutritional intake which results into nutritional deficiency. Various reasons for such a condition is the age related decline in the digestive and also metabolic activities exacerbated by reduced sense of taste, smell and worsening of the oral health including the ability to chew and swallow.
Many nutritional components have potential to interact with various drugs leading to reduced therapeutic efficacy of the drug and increased adverse effects of the drug which have serious health consequences.
Nutritional requirements of older persons were different in both qualitatively and quantitatively comparing with young adults. In order to maintain energy balance the daily uptake of total calories may need to be properly taken without adversely affecting the nutritional balance. This can be achieved by using different nutritional supplements like vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients without adding to the burden of total calories.
Healthy ageing is still being debated among social gerontologists and medical professionals. Healthy ageing can be understood as the state of maintaining, recovering and enhancing health in old age and dietary practices which facilitate achieving this state can be known as healthy foods and diets.
Numerous traditional and socio cultural facts of dietary habits can be more significant than molecular, biochemical and physiological concerns regarding to their nutritional composition. The consequent health related claims of varied dietary patterns have been influenced by their acceptance globally and cross culturally.
Rapidly developing understanding about biological daily rhythm affects and regulates nutritional needs known as chrono-nutrition which has become a crucial aspect of healthy eating habits. Similar situation is called nutrient timing involves consuming food at same times for achieving certain specific outcomes such as weight reduction and muscle strength.
No one cannot decide universal food composition and consumption pattern by ignoring the cultural practices.
Selective evolution through the agricultural practices and the experimental manipulation, modification of food components has primary targets for improving the food quality. This is authenticated by the extensive research performed mainly on experimental animal and cell culture model systems by demonstrating the health promoting effects of the nutritional components and the biological extracts. Individual nutrients or a combination of few nutrients are tested for potential use for calorie restriction mimetics and hormetins.