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Mycobacterium Tuberculosis-Specific Antigens As Subunit Vaccines Against Tuberculosis

Abstract

Mustafa AS

Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB is present globally and ranks among the top 10 causes of all deaths and it is the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent, with a ranking above HIV/AIDS [1]. According to the world-wide estimates from the World Health Organization (WHO), about 10 million people became ill with TB and 1.5 million people died of it in 2018 [1]. The situation of TB is further complicated as a public health problem due to drug-resistance and increased susceptibility of HIV/AIDS patients. In 2018, there were about 0.5 million new cases of TB resistant to rifampicin (the most effective first-line anti-TB drug) and 0.4 million of them had multidrug resistant TB Moreover, about 25% of the global population is estimated to be latently infected with M. tuberculosis, and 5 ??? 15% of them have the lifetime risk of developing clinically active TB disease. An efficient and effective TB control program requires development of effective drugs against resistance strains, cost-effective technologies for the specific diagnosis of latent and active disease and effective, safe and affordable vaccines. Among the various possibilities, the availability of new TB vaccines deserves priority because cost-effective and safer vaccines are the best option as such vaccines have been effective in controlling and eradicating many infectious diseases.

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