Higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Accra, Ghana


Akosua Marcel, Kwame Majid Anthony and Asamoah Kofi

Data on dietary practices, physical activity and body mass indices of type 2 diabetics in Ghana is scanty. This study therefore assessed relationships between dietary practices, physical activity, and body mass indices of type 2 diabetic patients using a cross-sectional survey. One hundred and twenty type 2 diabetic patients were purposely recruited from the Diabetes Centre at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, dietary assessment methods, anthropometry and a modified Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data obtained were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (SPSS version 20.0) and ESHAFood Processor Nutrient Database Software (Version 10). The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to test the associations at 5% level of significance. Most (88%) respondents had lived with diabetes for a year or more and majority (95%) ate 3 times daily with or without snacks. Both male and female respondents exceeded the recommended intakes for protein, calcium, vitamins A and C, and niacin. Energy intakes were however below the recommended values in both males and females. Respondents' level of physical activity was generally low (67%). Thirty eight percent had normal weights while 62% were either overweight or obese. There was a positive correlation and statistically significant relationship between diet quality and body mass index (BMI: r2 =0.217; p= 0.017). Level of physical activity and BMI were also positively correlated and statistically significant (r2=0.213; p=0.019). Diet quality and physical activity have positive influences on the BMIs of respondents. Overweight and obese respondents need to be advised by health professionals on physical activities and proper diet to achieve healthy weights to avoid complications related to diabetes mellitus.


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