Journal of Fever and Tropical Diseases

Opinion Article - Journal of Fever and Tropical Diseases ( 2022) Volume 2, Issue 2

Past and present history of cholera epidemics

Golecha R*
Department of Nursing Science, University of Ahmadu Bello, Zaria, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author:
Golecha R, Department of Nursing Science, University of Ahmadu Bello, Zaria, Nigeria, Email:

Received: 01-Aug-2022, Manuscript No. JFTD-22-74146; Editor assigned: 03-Aug-2022, Pre QC No. JFTD-22-74146(PQ); Reviewed: 17-Aug-2022, QC No. JFTD-22-74146; Revised: 24-Aug-2022, Manuscript No. JFTD-22-74146(R); Published: 01-Sep-2022, DOI: 10.15651/2465-7190.22.2.013


Cholera, a bacterial disease, is most commonly spread through contaminated water. Dehydration and severe diarrhea are two effects of cholera. In previously healthy people, cholera can be fatal if left untreated within hours. Modern sewage and water treatment, cholera is essentially non-existent in rich countries. However, cholera remains a problem in Haiti and Southeast Asia. The risk of a cholera pandemic is greatest when famine, conflict or natural disasters force people to live in enclosed spaces without adequate sanitation.

Severe dehydration-related deaths can be avoided through rapid and inexpensive rehydration methods. Diarrhea One liter of fluid per hour can be lost in cholerarelated diarrhea in dangerous amounts. Diarrhea can develop suddenly. Cholera-related diarrhea often appears pale and milky and resembles a rice rinse. Vomiting can last for hours, especially in the early stages of cholera. Dehydration can become noticeable hours after the first signs of cholera appear. Severe dehydration is indicated by weight loss of 10% or more. Cholera dehydration is characterized by inflammation, fatigue, sunken eyes, dry mouth and intense thirst, dry, contracted skin that takes a long time to recover after being squeezed, little or no urination, low blood pressure, and can cause irregular heartbeats.

Muscle cramps are one of the worst signs and symptoms of an electrolyte imbalance. These are caused by rapid loss of salts such as potassium, sodium and chloride.

Shock is one of the most serious side effects of dehydration. It happens because low blood volume lowers blood pressure and reduces oxygen level in the body. Severe hypovolemic shock can be fatal within minutes if left untreated. A classic example of a waterborne disease is cholera, an intestinal disease. It spreads via the fecal-oral route. This is contaminated water that people then consume to spread the virus throughout the population. Food that has been washed, rinsed, or cooked with contaminated water can also transmit disease. Crustaceans and seafood, especially when eaten raw, fruits and vegetables produced in sewage water rich in human excrement or irrigated with raw sewage, and food stored in rotting ice, carry disease. Left untreated, more than 50% of affected individuals can die, sometimes within hours, from sudden leakage of fluid from the colon.

However, mortality is limited to less than 1% of individuals requiring treatment and is essentially avoidable with appropriate modern care. This treatment consists primarily of alkaline sodium chloride solutions given orally or intravenously to replace lost fluids and salts. Oral Rehydration Salt a measured combination of ORS, glucose, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and disodium citrate is used to prepare an oral rehydration solution. Cholera can be treated even in the worst situations because a prepared cocktail may be served by non-medical personnel, usually in patients requiring intravenous hydration, except in severely dehydrated patients. , all patients can be treated with ORS. The key to cholera prevention is a reliable supply of clean water.

Proper chlorination of public water sources and the occasional supply of chlorine tablets to households with instructions for their proper use are often effective measures. If chemical disinfection is not an option, people may be told to boil water before consumption, which can be difficult, especially in developing countries where fuel is expensive or unavailable. More Even simple techniques can work. For example, cholera transmission in Calcutta was significantly reduced by switching from open containers that easily contaminate water to narrowneck jugs. In Kolkata, it is customary to store water at home.