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Medical Case Studies and Case Reports

Commentary - Medical Case Studies and Case Reports ( 2022) Volume 11, Issue 2

Evolution of measles, mumps and rubella vaccination

V Marchione*
 
Department of Prevention, Georgetown University School of Nursing and Health Studies, Washington, USA
 
*Corresponding Author:
V Marchione, Department of Prevention, Georgetown University School of Nursing and Health Studies, Washington, USA, Email: [email protected]

Received: 26-Jul-2022, Manuscript No. MCSCR-22-61026; Editor assigned: 29-Jul-2022, Pre QC No. MCSCR-22-61026(PQ); Reviewed: 12-Aug-2022, QC No. MCSCR-22-61026; Revised: 19-Aug-2022, Manuscript No. MCSCR-22-61026(R); Published: 26-Aug-2022, DOI: 10.15651/MCSCR.22.10.040

Description

Both measles and rubella are caused by the RNA virus. The Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR) vaccines protect people from three serious viral illnesses. The disease is transmitted by direct contact with sneezing or coughing droplets from people who carry the virus. The combination vaccine protects against all three illnesses. Another vaccine MMRV protects against measles, mumps, and rubella and also against chickenpox.

Measles

Measles is an infectious disease that spreads very easily and can cause serious problems for some people. The MMR vaccine is the best way to prevent this. Signs and symptoms of measles usually begin with a cold like symptom, followed by a rash after a few days. Some people have small spots in their mouth. The first symptoms of measles are high temperature, runny nose or stuffy nose, sneezing, coughing, redness, pain, and watery eyes. The rash usually appears days after a coldlike symptom and begins behind the face and ears and spreads to the rest of the body. The measles rash spots may rise and combine to form blotchy spots. Usually there is no itching. The rash appears brown or red on white skin. It may be difficult to see on darker skin. After few days, small white spots may appear on the cheeks and the back of the lips which usually last for a few days.

Mumps

Mumps is a common viral infection in children before the introduction of the MMR vaccine. The signs and symptoms of mumps are: Mumps is most prominent as a painful swelling of the side of the face (parotid glands) under the ears that gives a person with mumps a unique "hamster face". Other symptoms of mumps include headaches, joint pain, and high temperatures that can occur days before the swelling of parotid glands.

Rubella

Rubella (German measles) is an infection from a virus causes mild fever and rash in infants and children. Pregnant women who get rubella have an increased chance of having babies with birth defects. Signs and Symptoms of Rubella are: Rubella infection may begin with 12 days of mild fever and swollen, tender lymph nodes, usually in the back of the neck or behind the ears. A rash then begins on the face and spreads downward. As it spreads, it usually clears on the face. A rubella rash is often the first sign of an illness that parents notice. It may look like many other viral rashes and appear as a pink or bright red patch that can be combined into a uniform color patch. The rash can be itchy and lasts up to 3 days. When the rash clears, the affected skin may fall into very fine flakes.

Other symptoms of rubella that are common in teens and adults include headaches, loss of appetite, mild conjunctivitis (inflammation of the inside of the eyelids and eyeballs), a stuffy and runny nose, and swollen lymph nodes in other parts of the body, and pain and swollen joints. Many people with rubella have a very few or no symptoms. The rubella rash usually lasts for 3 days. Lymph nodes may swell for more than a week and joint pain may last for more than two weeks. Children with rubella usually recover within a week, but adults may take longer.

Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) Vaccine

The MMR vaccine is given twice to babies and children of the recommended age of 12 to 15 months and 4 to 6 years. Adolescents who have not been vaccinated at the recommended age will be given two doses as a catch-up dose. The second dose should be given at least 4 weeks after the first dose. Children with mild illness can still be vaccinated. However, if the child has a moderate or severe illness it is generally best to wait. Always consult your child's doctor for instructions.

Some people should not get MMR vaccine or should wait. Tell the vaccine provider if the person getting the vaccine: Has a severe life-threatening allergy, people who have had a life-threatening allergic reaction to the dose of the MMR vaccine, or who have a severe allergy to any part of the vaccine. Talk to your doctor if you need information about the ingredients of the vaccine. Pregnant women should wait for the MMR vaccination until they are no longer pregnant. Women should avoid pregnancy for at least one month after MMR vaccination. Illness (cancer, HIV/AIDS, etc.) or treatment (radiation, immunotherapy, steroids, chemotherapy, etc.) weakens the immune system. You have a parent, sibling, or sister with a history of immune system problems. Has ever been prone to bruising or bleeding, have recently received a blood transfusion or received another blood product. You may be advised to delay your MMR vaccination for more than 3 months, have tuberculosis, and have been vaccinated with other vaccinations in the last 4 weeks. Live vaccines that are too close may not work well. Mild illnesses such as colds are usually not a reason to delay vaccination. People with moderate or severe illness probably need to wait. Your doctor can advise you.

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