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Review on camel liver pathology and Its major diagnostic approaches

Abstract

Dinaol Belina, Bulto Giro, Yimer Muktar, Tilaye Demissie, Hagos Ashenafi

The physiological functional reserve and regenerative capacity of liver can be lost by diseases affecting liver. Camel liver infection is an imperative disease that leads to great losses to camel production and condemnation of large numbers of livers in slaughter houses. A number of diseases can affect camel liver but toxic substances, infectious diseases, parasitic hepatitis, fatty liver, and tumors are considered as the usual causes. Clinical signs and pathological lesions of liver diseases are usually nonspecific hence, the disease is frustrating to diagnose and often difficult to treat. It is tricky to know the primary cause and even to differentiate the location of liver pathology (hepatic vs pre/post -hepatic). Hence its tentative clinical diagnosis should be confirmed by special techniques and diagnostic approaches such as necropsy, histopathology, serum liver enzyme (ALT, AST, GGT and ALP) tests, molecular pathology tests like IHC, PCR and in situ hybridization, and diagnostic cytology. Molecular pathology tests are employed in specific antigen detection, nucleic acid amplification and localization of cells containing specific nucleic acid sequences. Thus, an up to date and special diagnostic approach towards differentiation and confirmation of liver pathology requires the combined application of the above tests coupled to anatomic-pathology of the organ.

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