Prevalence of poultry coccidiosis, risk factors and pathological abnormalities of Eimeria in poultry

Abstract

Ejegayehu M. J.

A cross sectional study was conducted in Kombolcha Poultry Farm Enterprise to determine the prevalence, assessment of the risk factors and to identify the pathological abnormalities due to different species of Eimeria in 582 chickens of age 21 to 100 days, kept under deep litter management system from December, 2013 to March, 2014. The study involved fecal examination, post mortem examination, gross lesion examination, mucosal scraping examination and identification of Eimeria species. A statistically significant difference (p=0.000) was noted among the different age groups of grower chickens with the highest prevalence (73.1%) at 91 to 100 days old age group and the lowest (10.3%) in 21 to 30 days old age group. Out of 90 chicken subjected for post mortem examination, 58% (n=52) have showed gross pathological lesions in different parts of intestine. Gross lesions recorded were higher in Kookook breed (62.1%); however, there was no statistically significant difference among breeds. There was a statistically significant difference (p=0.011) in different age groups for gross lesion and it was high (71.4%) in 81 to 90 days old chickens and lower (22.2%) in 21 to 30 days old. Five Eimeria spp. were identified with Eimeria brunetti and Eimeria tenella which recorded most frequently prevalence of 17.8 and 12.2%, respectively, as single infections. Finally, it is concluded that the risk factors that are associated with coccidiosis should be taken into account in designing the prevention and control regimen. It was advised to design and implement strategic prophylaxis against coccidiosis than therapeutic approach, and conduct continuous coccidiosis monitoring via regular litter oocyst counts and taking appropriate measures accordingly.

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