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An insight review on canine ehrlichiosis with emphasis on its epidemiology and pathogenicity importance

Abstract

Getachew Terefe, Teshager Dubie, Juhar Tesfaye, Yasin Mohammed, Yimer Muktar

Canine ehrlichiosis is an important Immunosuppressive tick born disease in dog. The main causative agent of this disease is Ehrlichia canis. This paper provides information regarding the taxonomic classification, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, treatment and preventive measures for the indicated disease. The geographic distribution and transmission mostly related with brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineous, which act as a vector. As Ehrlichia do not contain pili the process of entering the host and facilitating infection occurs once Ehrlichia bind to the host cell by way of its outer membrane. There is no predilection for age or sex, and all breeds may be infected with CME. However, German shepherd dogs (GSD) seem to be more susceptible to CME than other breeds. Virulence variation of the E. canis strains may also affect the severity of the disease. The primary target of E.canis is mostly monocyte cells’, but other cells also can also be affected. Platelet disorders and serum protein alterations are the principal hematological and biochemical abnormalities in Canine ehrlichiosis, respectively. Clinical signs of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis are almost non specific. Definitive diagnosis of CME requires visualization of morula within monocytes on cytology, detection of serum antibodies with E. canis, the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification etc. Serology has low sensitivity relative to other tests. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to highlight available information on canine Ehrlichiosis with special focus on its biology, epidemiology, pathologic significance and control methods.

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